Thursday, December 29, 2016

To go

To go

Locked in poorly-lit word-dungeons, etymologists studying countless languages have done their best to construct the mother language for Indo-European languages. This hypothetical language is called Proto-Indo European.

One of the many proposed word-parts in this academically constructed language is ei-, meaning to go. Following is a very abbreviated list of some of the modern progeny of that ancient, imagined root, ei-.

exit to go out — appeared in English from ei- in the 1530s through Latin.

Mahayanaa branch of Buddhism — appeared in English from ei- in the 1700s from a Sanskrit word meaning the great vehicle.

itineraryroute of travel — appeared in English from ei- in the 1400s from Greek through Latin.

Janus Roman god of portals & doors — came to English about 1500 through Latin, most likely from ei-.

sedition revolt, uprising — came to English from ei- in the 1300s through Old French.

circuit a going around — appeared in the 1400s from ei- through Old French & Latin.

errant misplaced, originally traveling or roving — came to English from ei- in the the 1300s through Latin & Anglo-French.

suddenunexpected — arrived in English in the 1300s through Anglo-French & Vulgar Latin from ei- through a verb meaning to come or go stealthily.

itineranttraveling — appeared in English from ei- in the 1560s through Late Latin.

yew evergreen tree that symbolizes death & mortality — showed up in Old English from ei- through Proto-Germanic.

obituary - registry of deaths - appeared in English from ei- in the 1700s through a Latin word meaning departure.

Look at all the places we’ve been taken by two little letters meaning to go. Bravo & brava to the etymologists who have put ei- into the mouths of people who couldn’t even have written those letters, since they had no alphabet to begin with. As 2016 prepares to go, imagine all the wild places 2017 might take us.

Big thanks to this week’s sources: Merriam Webster,, the OED, &

Thursday, December 22, 2016

Words o' the season

Words o’ the season

Recently, controversy has erupted regarding the use of merry Christmas vs. happy holidays. Though the controversy is intriguing, I find myself etymologically interested in the difference between wishing someone a merry time vs. wishing that same someone a happy time.

Merry made its way into Old English before records of such things were kept. Merry meant agreeable, sweet, pleasantly or melodiously. Merry’s source was a Proto-Germanic word meaning brief. Yes, brief. Some argue the connection came through the idea that happiness is fleeting, therefore merriness is also fleeting. Others argue a connection to the thinking behind the idiom time flies when you’re having fun or the idea that one enjoys one’s pastime in brief jots between sessions of getting more important work done. During Middle English, merry broadened its meanings to include fine, pleasant-sounding, pleasant-tasting, handsome, & of course, there was the often satirically used Merrie Olde England.

Happy made its way into the language in the late 1300s. It originally meant lucky, favored by fortune, prosperous, or turning out well. These meanings morphed within the century to very glad, which grew in the following century to mean pleased & content.

Blessed is another adjective we hear over the holidays. The adjective form showed up in English in the 1200s, initially meaning both supremely happy & consecrated. Blessed came from the verb bless, which seems to have been a part of Old English from the start, initially meaning to consecrate, make holy or give thanks. The verb bless has what to the modern sensibility seems an undignified beginning. It came from a Proto-Germanic word, meaning to hallow or mark with blood. Those who first translated the English Bible appear to have chosen this word in an attempt to make the newly arriving Christian religion feel familiar.

Joy is another word we see & hear at the holidays. Joy appeared in English in the 1200s meaning a feeling of pleasure & delight. It came through the French word joie, which meant delight, bliss, joyfulness (& was also used to refer to erotic pleasure). The French word came from a Latin word meaning expressions of pleasure or sensual delight. The Latin word’s source — the grandmother word of all this joy -- was a Proto-Indo-European word meaning rejoice, which throws some light on how those Latin-&-French speaking folks might have been rejoicing.

May the season find you experiencing whatever sort of joy, blessedness, happiness or merriment appeals most to you.

Big thanks to this week’s sources: Merriam Webster,, the OED, &

Thursday, December 15, 2016

More yule-ish words

More yule-ish words

Last week we considered the yule-ish words jolly, egg-nog, wreath & yule. This week we’ll head into the holiday season, with a few more yule-related words.

The Proto-Germanic word for basil or mistletoe (as if basil is anything like mistletoe) made its way into Old English, where it was combined with a word meaning twig to become our modern word mistletoe. Druids were big fans of hanging mistletoe in celebration of their winter rites, & as Christianity spread, the practice continued. We typically don’t discuss the Druids’ activities under the mistletoe, but the tradition of kissing under the mistletoe appears to have established itself sometime in the 1800s. 

The word menorah entered the English language in 1886. It came from a Hebrew verb meaning to give light, to shine. Menorah shares a Semitic root with minaret, which appeared in English in the 1680s from Arabic through Turkish & French. 

And two yule-related words we don’t typically associate with eating came from words referring to either the act of eating or the food itself. Creche made its way into English in 1892 from Old High German through Old French. In Old French, creche meant a crib, manger, or stall, but creche’s source word (the Old High German one) referred to the fodder the critters ate while in a crib, stall or manger — their food. Speaking of mangerin the 1300s the French word mangier, meaning to eat, gave birth to the English word manger in much the same way. Once more, critters in a manger eat. 

And though most of us would rather not think about it, when truly little critters of the mite variety munch away on the larger critters in the manger, we employ another word based on the French verb to eatmange!

May your holiday festivities involve mistletoe, menorahs, creches & mangers and altogether avoid mange.

Please leave any comments int he comments section.

Big thanks to this week’s sources: Merriam Webster,, the OED, &

Thursday, December 8, 2016

Yule-ish words

Yule-ish words

As we head into the holiday season, here are a few Yule-related etymologies.

The word yule showed up in Old English from Old Norse long before anyone was writing down English or Norse. Yule originally referred to a two-month spate of Pre-Christian winter festivities some might refer to as heathen or pagan. Interestingly, nobody’s sure where the Old Norse got the word yule, but we do know it’s related to another winter-associated word, jolly.

The word egg-nog appeared in American English in the 1770s, a combination of egg & nog, the latter showing up in the 1690s & referring initially to a strong, old beer brewed in Norfolk. Then there is egg. The chicken-duck-or-goose sort of egg first entered the language in the mid-1300s from an Old Norse word that probably referred to birds &/or bird eggs. However, earlier than that, back in the 1200s, the Old Norse verb, egg, entered the English language, meaning to goad or incite. This fact poses the question of whether egg-nog was originally more about whipping eggs into beer or goading one’s compatriots into drinking more.

When the word wreath came to Old English it originally translated to that which is wound around. Wreath has some intriguing linguistic brethren: an Old High German word meaning twisted, a Frisian & an Old Norse word meaning angry, & a Dutch word meaning rough, harsh & cruel. All these came from a Proto-Indo European word meaning to twist or bend. It wasn’t until the 1560s that wreath meant a garland of flowers or greenery.

Next week we’ll explore a few more yule-related words, but in the meantime, I’m hoping you’ll have something to say in the comments section about these ones.

Big thanks to this week’s sources: Merriam Webster,, the OED, &

Thursday, December 1, 2016

Big idioms

Big idioms

The word big appears in many idioms. Here are a few.

Back in the 1600s, Louis XIII went bald. Bummer for him, as folks of the time believed a hirsute man was a powerful man. His answer to his problem was to wear a wig. Soon, wigs became tres cool in court. They grew and grew in importance & sheer mass. In time, the most glorious wigs required internal scaffolding (I don’t make these things up). Of course, only the wealthiest & most powerful could afford the most absurdly tall wigs. By the time the 1700s came along, the high & mighty became known as big wigs or bigwigs.

The big cheese didn’t get big until it crossed the pond in 1910. Previous to that (in merry old England), the word cheese was used to mean the best or first rate, (though in recent times cheese & cheesy have come to mean the opposite) But the idiom meant first rate when it arrived in the USA. By the 1920s, the big cheese shifted to mean the boss or the important person.

On a related note, a person who thinks highly of him/herself is said to have a big head. This idiom meaning conceited appeared in 1850.

The idiom big band came about in 1926 and doesn’t refer to the size of the band as much as the sort of music the band in question plays. Typically, a big band consists of one to two dozen instrumentalists (& sometimes a vocalist or two) playing swing music of the 1930s and 1940s.

Since the 1800s, important issues have been big deals & we’ve had big fish in a small pond. People who talk a lot have been big mouths since 1889, and big business is a term we’ve been using since 1905. Since 1909 we’ve called New York the Big Apple, though it took until 1970 for New Orleans to become the Big Easy. People have been able to mess up big time or make the big time since 1910, a prison or jail has been the big house since 1915, & we’ve had big shots since 1929. The idiom Big Brother was born in 1949, big bang came about in 1950, & big ticket showed up in 1956.

It’s a big world out there, folks! Here’s hoping you’ve got something to say about all this bigness. If so, please do so in the comments section.

Big thanks to this week’s sources: phrase finder,, the OED, &